The impetus for this project was the federal government's desire to cut costs and remove itself from subsidizing coastal ferry service to Labrador outports , being provided by the federal Crown corporation Marine Atlantic. The section from Red Bay to Charlottetown is being paved, to be completed in The southern TLH runs km, divided as follows: The Phase II section of the southern portion of the TLH between Red Bay and Mary's Harbour experiences extreme winter driving conditions: pictures of heavy snow-removal equipment battling snow drifts dozens of feet deep have become famous around the world; the poor winter driving conditions result in this section of the TLH being impassable for weeks.
Phase II north from Cartwright Junction is Route , a ferry service connects Cartwright with Happy Valley-Goose Bay, intended to be removed after the highway is completed, achieved in mid-December Transportation Minister Tom Hedderson had made the announcement of the impending completion of the highway connection between Cartwright and Happy Valley-Goose Bay on Tuesday, December 8, in the legislature.
Although the entire route was designated as Route , upon completion of Phase III, the northern 94 km from Cartwright Junction was designate. The town had a population of in the Canada Census up from in The town was incorporated in ; the first mayor was Reginald O'Brien Sr. Cod fisheries Cod fisheries are fisheries for cod. Cod is the common name for fish of the genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae , this article is confined to the three species that belong to this genus: the Atlantic cod, the Pacific cod and the Greenland cod.
Cod are demersal fish found in huge schools confined to temperate waters in the northern hemisphere. Atlantic cod are found in deeper sea regions throughout the Northern Atlantic ; the Pacific cod is found in both western regions of the Pacific. Atlantic cod can grow to 2 metres in length, its average weight is 5 to 12 kilograms, but specimens weighing up to kilograms have been recorded.
Pacific cod are smaller, may grow up to 49 centimetres and weigh up to 15 kilograms. Cod feed on mollusks , starfish , worms and small fish; some migrate south in winter to spawn. A large female lays up to five million eggs in mid-ocean, a small number of which survive. Cod has been an important economic commodity in international markets since the Viking period.
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Cod are popular as a food fish with low fat content and a dense white flesh. When cooked, cod is flaky. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil. Cod are at risk from overfishing. In the United Kingdom , Atlantic cod is one of the most common kinds of fish to be found in fish and chips, along with haddock and plaice , it is well known for being consumed in Portugal and the Basque Country , where it is considered a treasure of the nation's cuisine.
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Cod are prolific, producing several million eggs at each spawning; this contributes to their high population numbers, which, in turn, makes commercial fishing easy. Adult cod are active hunters, feeding on sand eels, haddock, small cod, crabs, mussels , worms and molluscs, supplementing their diets. Young cod avoid larger prey. Atlantic cod is a well-known demersal food fish belonging to the family Gadidae. In the western Atlantic Ocean , cod has a distribution north of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina , round both coasts of Greenland , it can grow to 2 metres in length.
Its average weight is 5 to 12 kilograms, but specimens weighing up to kilograms have been recorded.
Sexual maturity is attained between 2 and 4 years, but can be as late as 8 years in the northeast Arctic. The Atlantic cod can change colour at certain water depths, has two distinct colour phases: grey-green and reddish brown. Colouring is brown shading to silver ventrally. A lateral line is visible, its habitat ranges from the shoreline down to the continental shelf.
Several cod stocks collapsed in the s and have failed to recover with the cessation of fishing; this absence of the apex predator has led to a trophic cascade in many areas. While the north west Atlantic cod stocks have not yet recovered from overfishing in the past, most stocks in the East Atlantic are in good condition and well managed, such as those at North Norway and Svalbard.
On the other hand, conservation initiatives undertaken by fishermen working in cooperation with government, such catch-quota management, have made a meaningful contribution to the recovery of cod in the central and northern North Sea. The biomass of cod in the Irish Sea and West of Scotland remains depleted.
A temporary cod plan that excludes a days-at-sea regime will apply from 1 January before this is superseded by new multi-species plans for individual sea basins; the Pacific cod is an important commercial food species. It has three separate dorsal fins, the catfish-like whiskers on its lower jaw. In appearance, it is similar to the Atlantic Cod. A bottom dweller, it is found along the continental shelf and upper slopes with a range around the rim of the North Pacific Ocean , from the Yellow Sea to the Bering Strait , along the Aleutian Islands , south to about Los Angeles , down to the depths of metres, they may weigh up to 15 kilograms.
It is found in huge schools. In Northwest Pacific catches of Pacific cod by the United States trawl fishery and joint-venture fisheries increased from less than 1, tonnes in to nearly 91, tonnes in and reached , tonnes in Today, catches are regulated, the Pacific cod quota is split among fisheries that use hook and line gear and bottom trawls.
Greenland cod is sombre-coloured, ranging from tan to brown to silvery, its appearance is similar to that of other cod species. They can grow to a length of 80 centimetres. Kent Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties. It borders Surrey to the west and East Sussex to the south-west; the county shares borders with Essex along the estuary of the River Thames , with the French department of Pas-de-Calais through the Channel Tunnel.
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The county town is Maidstone. Canterbury Cathedral in Kent has been the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury , leader of the Church of England , since the Reformation. Prior to that it was built by Catholics, dating back to the conversion of England to Catholicism by Saint Augustine that began in the 6th century.
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Before the English Reformation the cathedral was part of a Benedictine monastic community known as Christ Church, Canterbury, as well as being the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury; the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury was Reginald Pole. Rochester Cathedral is in Kent, in Medway , it is the second-oldest cathedral in England, with Canterbury Cathedral being the oldest. England relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of its history.
France can be seen in fine weather from Folkestone and the White Cliffs of Dover. Hills in the form of the North Downs and the Greensand Ridge span the length of the county and in the series of valleys in between and to the south are most of the county's 26 castles; because of its relative abundance of fruit-growing and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England". Kent's economy is diversified. In northwest Kent industries include extraction of aggregate building materials and scientific research. Coal mining has played its part in Kent's industrial heritage. Large parts of Kent are within the London commuter belt and its strong transport connections to the capital and the nearby continent makes Kent a high-income county.
In Latin sources Kent is mentioned as Canticum. The meaning is explained by some researchers as "coastal district," or "corner-land, land on the edge". If so, the name could be etymologically related to the placename Cantabria a Celtiberian-speaking coastal region in pre-Roman Iberia , today a province of Spain ; the area has been occupied since the Palaeolithic era, as attested by finds from the quarries at Swanscombe.
The Medway megaliths were built during the Neolithic era. There is a rich sequence of Bronze Age , Iron Age , Roman era occupation, as indicated by finds and features such as the Ringlemere gold cup and the Roman villas of the Darent valley; the modern name of Kent is derived from the Brythonic word kantos meaning "rim" or "border", or from a homonymous word kanto "horn, hook". This describes the eastern part of the current county area as coastal district. Julius Caesar had described the area as um, or home of the Cantiaci in 51 BC; the extreme west of the modern county was by the time of Roman Britain occupied by Iron Age tribes, known as the Regnenses.
Caesar wrote that the people of Kent are'by far the most civilised inhabitants of Britain'. East Kent became a kingdom of the Jutes during the 5th century and was known as Cantia from about and recorded as Cent in ; the early medieval inhabitants of the county were known as the Kent people. These people regarded the city of Canterbury as their capital. The second designated English cathedral was in Kent at Rochester Cathedral. In the 11th century, the people of Kent adopted the motto Invicta, meaning "undefeated" or " unconquered "; this naming followed the invasion of Britain by William of Normandy.
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The Kent people's continued resistance against the Normans led to Kent's designation as a semi-autonomous county palatine in Under the nominal rule of William's half-brother Odo of Bayeux , the county was granted similar powers to those granted in the areas bordering Wales and Scotland. Kent was traditionally partitioned into East and West Kent , into lathes and hundreds; the traditional border of East and West Kent was the Medway. By the reign of Elizabeth I a small dockyard had been established at Chatham.
By , storehouses, a ropewalk , a drydock , houses for officials had. The town had a population of in the Canada Census, it is serviced by Mary's Harbour Airport. Mary's Harbour surrounds the St. Mary's River. Mary's River was the site of a salmon fishery as early as the s; however Mary's Harbour was not a permanent settlement until after a fire at Battle Harbour in The International Grenfell Association decided to relocate its hospital and boarding school, destroyed by the fire, from Battle Harbour to Mary's Harbour. Mary's Harbour has always depended on the fishery for its livelihood.
Since the Collapse of the Atlantic northwest cod fishery the community has thrived on the crab fishery; the Labrador Fishermen's Union Shrimp Company employs over people at the local crab processing facility. Yvonne Jones , Member of Parliament for Labrador. Being located on the same latitude around 3, kilometres from frost-free areas of Ireland , the difference between the two Atlantic coastlines is rather extreme.